“for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability.”
威廉Kaelin, 巴黎人app下载安装医学院的西德尼·法伯医学教授和丹娜·法伯癌症研究所的医学教授, is one of three winners of the 2019 Nobel Prize in physiology or 医学. He shares the award with Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe of the University of Oxford and the Francis Crick Institute, and Gregg L. Semenza of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 他们三人被共同引用，因为他们发现了人类和大多数动物细胞感知和适应氧气供应变化的途径, a process essential for survival.
“for pioneering work in the discovery of telomerase, an enzyme that protects chromosomes from degrading.”
What began as a simple question regarding yeast cells, 拓宽了科学界对细胞层面上的衰老和死亡的理解, 而且很可能, our bodies as a whole. Described as a “scientist’s scientist,” Szostak has been studying the ends of chromosomes and a special enzyme, 叫做端粒酶, 是什么帮助将染色体的两端固定在一起并防止它们的退化. 在他的研究中, 他发现，一些端粒不正常激活的细胞有一种逃避破坏的方式——进入癌细胞——这一发现引发了围绕癌症研究和衰老过程的大量更大的问题. 英国出生的, 杰克·绍斯塔克(杰克·绍斯塔克)是巴黎人app下载安装医学院(Harvard Medical School)和附属麻省总医院(Massachusetts General Hospital)的遗传学教授. Since his award-winning reaching on telomeres, Szostak has shifted his intellectual curiosity from the death of cells, 他是巴黎人app下载安装生命起源计划的联合主任.
“For discoveries of “odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system.”
巴克 received the Nobel Prize for work relating to the sense of smell, which the Nobel committee noted had “long remained the most enigmatic of our senses. The basic principles for recognizing and remembering about 10,000 different odours were not understood.” 巴克 and Richard Axel, with whom she shared the prize, published the fundamental paper describing odorant receptors in 1991. That year 巴克 became an assistant professor at Harvard Medical School. 诺贝尔基金会引用的巴黎人官方app下载嗅觉系统组织的发现历时10年, during which I was a faculty member at Harvard,”她说. Since 2002, 巴克 has been at the Fred Hutchison Cancer Research Center in Seattle.
Developed new procedures for organ transplants (with E. Donnall Thomas, formerly of the University of Washington)
The ambidextrous 穆雷, who performed the first successful human kidney transplant, is one of the few surgeon-scientists to win the Nobel. 尽管默里致力于他的实验室工作，但他首先关心的一直是病人. During World War II, doing reparative surgery, p艺术icularly with burns patients, 穆雷 became intrigued by the dynamics of tissue rejection and acceptance, leading him to his interest in transplant surgery.
Research on information-processing in the visual system (with 大卫休博尔)
当被告知他获得了诺贝尔奖时，威塞尔说，“哦，不，我很担心! I better go and hide.”威塞尔, what really counts is the research and its results, 比如治疗先天性白内障和其他儿童致盲疾病的改进. Wiesel is President Emeritus of The Rockefeller University.
Research on information-processing in the visual system (with 托尔斯滕·威塞尔)
In a p艺术nership spanning decades, Hubel和托尔斯滕·威塞尔为我们理解大脑如何分析视觉信息提供了基础. The pair describe their work as a 50-50 effort. Says Hubel, “It’s been a real Gilbert and Sullivan sort of thing. Not that we would compare ourselves to those celestial people, but they did do different things and you wouldn’t say one did more than the other.胡贝尔是约翰·富兰克林·恩德斯大学神经生物学教授和学会高级研究员.
Discovered that disease-fighting ability is passed on genetically, although the immune-response gene varies from person to person
Benacerraf’s discovery has several dramatic applications, helping us to understand: 1) the body’s ability to repel microbial invasions, 身体接受或排斥皮肤移植物或器官移植的机制, and 3) the growth of tumors, invaders that outwit or fool the body’s defense system. Benacerraf is the George Fabyan Professor of Comparative Pathology Emeritus.
Research on the biochemistry of vision
Wald contributed greatly to our knowledge of the human eye, p艺术icularly the visual pigments and how light affects them. 他站在了将生物学从细胞科学转变为分子科学的革命的最前沿. An early and outspoken opponent of the Vietnam War, Wald was always a lively, 订婚了, and formidable figure in the political arena.
布洛赫的艰苦研究为被称为“生物化学黄金时代”的半个世纪画上了句号.决心与科学界之外的聪明的外行人交流, 这位名誉教授于1994年出版了一本名为《巴黎人app下载安装》的生动作品集, The Nine-Banded Armadillo, and other Essays in Biochemistry, 它(以及其他一些东西)表明，许多文艺复兴时期的肖像画都以“瓶中金发女郎?.”
Described the structure of DNA
In 1953, at the tender age of 25, the enfant terrible 沃森, with British scientist Francis Crick, presented a model for DNA, 在一场势均力敌的比赛中击败了莱纳斯·鲍林，成为20世纪最重要的科学发现之一. His controversial book, 双螺旋结构, ”被称为,” says The New York Times, “the most honest book ever written about scientific research.沃森目前是纽约州长岛冷泉港实验室的主任.Y.
Demonstrated the physical principles involved in the mechanism of hearing
这个工程师, 年轻时就被故乡匈牙利的吉普赛音乐所吸引, 曾因“解开了谜团，揭示了听觉系统的优雅”而受到称赞.” His delicate engineering feats included the design of special scissors, whose blades were a few thousandths of an inch long, to manipulate the cochlea, a minute structure in the inner ear.
Application of tissue-culture methods to the study of viral diseases (with J.F. 恩德斯和F.C. 罗宾斯)
In addition to his work on the polio virus, 韦勒对人类寄生虫和引起风疹(德国麻疹)和水痘的病毒的研究做出了重大贡献. Later in his career, 韦勒 distinguished himself as an administrator, 担任巴黎人app下载安装公共卫生学院传染病预防中心主任, where he significantly advanced the School’s international reputation. 韦勒 is the Richard Pearson Strong Professor of Tropical Public Health Emeritus.
Application of tissue-culture methods to the study of viral diseases (with J.F. 恩德斯和T.H. 韦勒)
At Harvard Medical School in the late 1930s, 罗宾斯 studied with John 恩德斯 and roomed with Thomas 韦勒. After earning his M.D.二战期间，他曾在北非和意大利服役，调查细菌性疾病. He was awarded a Bronze Star. By 1950, he was back with his old college colleagues, 恩德斯和韦勒, doing the experiments which led to their Nobel Prize — and a vaccine for polio.
Application of tissue-culture methods in developing a polio virus, the ingredient of the polio vaccine (with F.C. 罗宾斯和T.H. 韦勒)
Without 恩德斯’ subtle triumph of learning how to grow a virus, 更著名的乔纳斯·索尔克就无法为自己的作品做出强有力的结论. In addition to his many achievements in human biology, “首席,” as 恩德斯 was called, was esteemed for his impeccable standards of personal and scientific honesty.
A slow st艺术er and a self-admitted failure at academic politics, 李普曼 wandered early in his career from laboratory to laboratory as a researcher. 他的妻子回忆说，他“没有地位，没有前途，这似乎并不困扰他.” This lack of obsessive focus is, 也许, related to his famed ability to see the wider picture, 这一特征最终导致了巴黎人官方app下载生物体功能的关键发现.
Research on liver treatment of the anemias (with 乔治迈诺特)
乔治·米诺特怀疑，治疗恶性贫血的方法很简单，就是吃肝脏. 他招募了墨菲, then a resident at Boston’s Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, to conduct a survey of anemia patients. 墨菲一开始很难说服他的实验对象吃下这种潜在的药物. 然而，这些患者似乎奇迹般地康复了，这让那些更神经质的人信服了. Soon, a palatable extract was developed, based on the team’s work.
Research on liver treatment of the anemias (with 威廉·P. 墨菲)
The scion of a Boston Brahmin family, 起初并不雄心勃勃的迈诺特最终成为血液学领域的先驱, 血液研究. While researching the deadly blood disease known as pernicious anemia, Minot himself was stricken by diabetes. It was the discovery of insulin in 1921 that allowed him to continue his research, which ultimately led to his own discovery of the cure for pernicious anemia.